Tag Archive: Tatars of Crimea

May 15, 2016

KIEV, Ukraine (AP) — Crimean Tatars on Sunday celebrated Ukrainian singer Jamala’s win at Eurovision with a song that sheds light on their horrific deportations to Central Asia under Soviet dictator Josef Stalin but also hints at their recent treatment under Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Many Russians, whose Eurovision Song Contest entry won the popular vote but finished third when the national juries’ votes were added, said they felt robbed of the win because of political bias. The Foreign Ministry spokeswoman joked sarcastically that to win next year’s contest a song will need to denounce “bloody” Syrian President Bashar Assad, who is supported by Moscow but blamed in the West for Syria’s 5-year civil war.

Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 was condemned by the United States and European Union, which responded by imposing punishing sanctions. Inside Crimea, the seizure of territory from Ukraine was most strongly opposed by the Tatar minority, who now face persecution on the Moscow-ruled Black Sea peninsula.

“This song is about our tragedy … and I hope that people heard this,” said Emine Ziyatdinova, a 27-year-old Crimean Tatar who was among those celebrating the win at a Tatar restaurant in Kiev. Jamala’s song, “1944,” recalls how Crimean Tatars, including her great-grandmother, were deported during World War II.

In the space of three days in May 1944, all 200,000 Tatars, who then made up a third of Crimea’s population, were put on trains and shipped off to Central Asia upon Stalin’s orders, suspected of collaborating with the Nazis during their long occupation of the peninsula during the war.

Thousands died during the grueling journey or starved to death in the barren steppes upon their arrival. In the decades after the war, the Soviet Union developed Crimea as a naval base and a tourist destination, dominated by ethnic Russians along with Ukrainians.

It was not until the 1980s that the Tatars were allowed to return to their native land. Jamala, the stage name for Susana Jamaladinova, was born in the Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan in 1983. She now lives in Kiev.

The lyrics of her song don’t touch on Russia’s annexation of Crimea, and Jamala insists there’s no political subtext. But there’s no doubt the lyrics are powerful. She starts the song in English, singing “when strangers are coming, they come to your house, they kill you all and say ‘we’re not guilty.'”

Russians believe anti-Russian sentiment in Europe swayed the vote. Their entry, Sergey Lazarev, had all the right ingredients for a Eurovision winner: a song with a thumping techno beat, a catchy refrain and a buff man in a tight shirt riding on an iceberg through space.

“This is a political contest, 100 percent,” said Anastasia Bagayeva, who watched the contest from a Moscow restaurant. “This is not fair, but this is the current time.” Russian officials also cried foul. Maria Zakharova, the Foreign Ministry spokeswoman, said bitterly in a Facebook post that next year’s winning Eurovision song needs to be about Assad. She suggested this chorus in English: “Assad blood, Assad worst. Give me prize, that we can host.”

The country that wins Eurovision gets to host it the following year — an expensive obligation for the state broadcaster. In reporting on Ukraine’s victory, Russian state television questioned how the extravagant song contest can be held in a country where “there is a hole in the budget, a war is being waged in the east and in the capital there is often disorder.”

After Ukraine’s Moscow-friendly president was ousted by street protests in early 2014, Russia seized Crimea and backed separatists who now control swathes of territory in Ukraine’s industrial heartland in the east. Their fight against the Ukrainian government has claimed more than 9,300 lives.

Alexander Roslyakov and Lynn Berry in Moscow contributed.


February 15, 2016

UROZHAYNE, Crimea (AP) — Elnara Asanova lives alone with her four small children because her husband, an ethnic Tatar, is in jail. Last April, when she was seven months pregnant, police grabbed him from the streets of their village because he had taken part in a Tatar protest against Russian annexation of Crimea.

She’s not allowed to visit him, so she travels to every court hearing. Once she took 7-month-old Mustafa, so her husband could glimpse the child as he was led from the police van to the courtroom. The court has refused to release him on bail, describing him as a flight risk.

“They say he will run away. But where to?” said Elnara, a meek young woman. She points to her children. “We live in the country. You can’t survive here without a husband.” Two years after Russia seized Crimea from Ukraine, President Vladimir Putin touts the move as a historic achievement, looking on with a satisfied smile from countless billboards across the peninsula. However, overwhelming opposition from the Muslim Tatar ethnic minority puts a crack in this picture of unanimous support, as evidenced in interviews with more than two dozen Tatars across Crimea. And the resistance appears to be growing.

Many described the intimidation of community leaders, the closure of Tatar language classes and a general atmosphere of mistrust of Tatar residents. The Associated Press conducted some interviews at other people’s homes because of worries about police surveillance.

The majority of the people in Crimea are ethnic Russian and support Russia’s annexation. The nearly 300,000 Crimean Tatars, who make up less than 15 percent of the population, are Muslims, although largely secular.

Community leaders say repression has left young people fuming, risking their radicalization along the lines of the restive North Caucasus, a patchwork of predominantly Muslim republics in southern Russia.

Tatar activists are already fighting back. Before Russia annexed Crimea, Lenur Islyamov was a businessman with family and assets in Moscow. Last fall, he traded his business suits for military-style clothing to lead a resistance movement that imposed a blockade on the peninsula in retaliation for Russia’s persecution of the Tatars.

In September, the activists began stopping goods from crossing into Crimea. Three months later, the Ukrainian government stepped in and banned all trade. “Everyone, including Ukraine, left us with no other choice,” said Islyamov, whose assets in Moscow and Crimea have been seized. “Most of us don’t want to go to war — we want to make sandwiches, take our children to school, go shopping — but we’ve been forced to do this.”

Deliberate power outages have also become widespread. In November, unknown attackers blew up electricity pylons in Ukraine and tied Crimean Tatar flags to them, leaving 2 million people without heating. No one claimed responsibility for the explosions, but Tatar activists were suspected.

Tatars in Crimea cheered the power cuts, saying the blackout returned the world’s attention to the situation in Crimea. Muzafar Fukala, community leader of the village of Voinka, said losing light was “nothing” compared to the hardships Tatars had survived in the past.

“I’m prepared to live in a complete blackout until this scum leaves,” he said, referring to supporters of the annexation. To avoid police harassment, Fukala spoke to the AP in the home of friends in a neighboring village.

Both the border blockade and the power outages have put a big hole in the Kremlin budget at a time when plummeting oil prices have left Moscow with little to spare on shoring up its newest acquisition. Russia had to fly in supplies and thousands of generators, and speed up the construction of underwater power lines.

Islyamov is also working to set up a “battalion” of 500 Tatar activists to be stationed just a few miles from the border. Tatar activists in military fatigues, some of them carrying automatic weapons, now stand in the winter cold by the roadside of their tent camp. They used to search cars crossing into Crimea and back until blockade leaders announced that Ukrainian border guards and customs officials would now do so instead.

In November, Chechen intelligence officers called on Islyamov’s 17-year-old son in Moscow, where he studied, and threatened him unless he denounced his father publicly. Several hours later, Islyamov arranged for his son to leave Russia.

Officials in Crimea in charge of ethnic minorities didn’t respond to the AP’s requests seeking interviews and comment. Officials in the Crimean government have accused Tatar leaders who opposed the annexation of betraying the interests of the Tatars and being agents of Ukraine. Under Russian law, people can be punished for calling for the return of Crimea to Ukraine.

The Crimean Tatars have a long history of repression. In May 1944, all 200,000 Tatars, who then made up a third of Crimea’s population, were put on trains and shipped to Central Asia in the space of three days. Thousands died during the grueling journey or starved to death in the barren steppes upon arrival.

Unlike other peoples deported during World War II by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, the Tatars were not allowed to return to their native land until the 1980s. A visit to a Tatar home today opens a window to a parallel world far from the throngs of flag-waving Russians who gave Putin a Hollywood star reception on the streets of the Black Sea port of Sevastopol on his visit last summer. Tatars here all watch ATR, a Crimean Tatar channel owned by Islyamov, which was banished from Crimea and now broadcasts from exile in mainland Ukraine. They talk of “better times” and a future “victory,” alluding to the eventual return of Crimea to Ukraine.

In almost equal measure, Crimean Tatars feel betrayed by Kiev, after Ukrainian troops stationed on the peninsula surrendered to Russian forces in February 2014 without putting up any resistance. Later on, most of these troops took Russian citizenship and joined the Russian armed forces.

Left on their own, the Tatars at first made a foray into the new Crimean government. Islyamov, who had Russian citizenship, was dispatched in April 2014 by the Mejlis, the Tatars’ self-governing body, to become a deputy prime minister. Less than two months later, he resigned. He said Russian leaders were not interested in Tatar problems and every conversation turned into a dispute about Russian supremacy.

“We saw that Ukraine had ditched us, that it was inevitable that Russia was going to swallow Crimea and the global community was doing nothing,” he said. When pro-Russian politicians tried to push through a motion in the local legislature for a vote about Crimea’s future, the only visible force opposing them was the Crimean Tatar minority. Six people, including Elnara Asanova’s husband, Ali Asanov, are now on trial in the capital, Simferopol, on charges of rioting dating back to fist fights between rival rallies of the pro-Russian party and Crimean Tatars on Feb. 26, 2014. Not a single pro-Russian protester has faced charges.

Tatar businesses with purported ties to the blockade leaders have faced closures or legal onslaught, according to local journalist Zair Akadyrov. “The blockade is drawing more attention from the law enforcement agencies to Crimean activists because everyone gets unwittingly associated with that movement” on the border,” he said.

Bekir Umerov, who owns a two-story home improvement store on the outskirts of Simferopol, is one of the few Tatar businessmen in Crimea willing to speak publicly. His troubles began after the authorities found out he was a brother of Ilmi Umerov, a prominent Tatar community leader from Bakhchisarai. For a year and a half, Bekir Umerov’s store has been saddled with audits and checks from fire inspectors, the consumer rights agency and the economic crimes department.

“They’ve told me several times they are not interested in my documents, but they have been tasked to run the store into the ground because of the political views of my brother and my own,” Umerov said. He feels his only option is to rent out the store before officials find cause to close it down.

The reaction of the Crimean authorities to any display of allegiance to Ukraine sometimes borders on farce. A shop assistant at Umerov’s store says inspectors once asked them about a mailbox that happened to be in the yellow and blue colors of the Ukrainian flag.

More and more Tatars in Crimea and outside now say they want more than a return to Ukraine’s fold, after its passive stance toward Russian annexation. What they want is Tatar autonomy within Crimea. However, unlike other nations of the former Russian Empire with a troubled past, Crimean Tatars do not have a history of armed resistance. Nariman Dzhelyal, who leads the Crimean Tatar self-governing body since its leader has been barred from entering Crimea, argues that any suggestion of a guerrilla resistance is “complete nonsense.”

“The landscape does not help,” he said, suggesting that Crimea’s windswept steppes offered no place for potential guerrillas to hide. “And there are no weapons.”

04 August 2015 Tuesday

Ukraine has stepped up to establish a troop of Muslims, leader of Crimean Tatars, Mustafa Abdülcemil Kirimoglu, said on Aug. 3. according to a report in the IB Times.

The troops will be deployed in the Kherson region on the Crimean border and would monitor transportation of goods and people between Ukraine and the peninsula, he said speaking at a congress.

The troop will be formed of Crimean Tatars, Kazan Tatars, Uzbeks, Chechens, Azeris, Meskhetian Turks and other Muslim groups, Kirimoglu noted.

Kirimoglu met with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan after attending the 2nd World Crimean Congress, which convened in Ankara July 31-Aug. 2

An autonomous Crimean Tatar Republic will be formed, Kirimoglu said, calling on the Crimean people to take an active role in Ukrainian politics. He expressed expectation from the diaspora on this bid.

The Muslim battalion is part of growing relations between Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians and will report to the Ukrainian Defense Ministry, said Kirimoglu. Crimean Tatars are an ethnically Turkic and religiously Islam minority group that has faced decades of religious and political persecution under Russian rule.

Ukraine has halted train services to Crimea after Russia’s annexation of the peninsula, instead directing services to Novooleksiyvka and Kherson. Turkish Airlines also added an additional flight to Kherson after the annexation.

Source: World Bulletin.

Link: http://www.worldbulletin.net/headlines/162777/ukraine-to-establish-crimean-tatar-military-unit.

May 18, 2015

MOSCOW (AP) — Police in the capital of Russia-annexed Crimea have detained demonstrators trying to take part in an unauthorized motorcade to observe the anniversary of the mass deportation of Crimean Tatars.

Tatars, a Turkic ethnic group, ruled the Black Sea peninsula from the 15th century until Russian conquest in the 18th century. In May 1944, Soviet dictator Josef Stalin accused the Tatars of collaborating with German forces and ordered their deportation, many to Central Asia.

Tatars commemorate the deportation on May 18. This year’s events in Simferopol were much smaller than those before Russia’s March 2014 annexation of Crimea, which most Tatars opposed. Crimea’s chief of inter-ethnic affairs, Zaur Smirnov, said Monday about 100 motorcade participants were blocked and the men among them were taken to a police station to be interrogated.

Mar. 30, 2015

It’s the only television channel that broadcasts in the Crimean Tatar language, and soon it might be off the air forever. ATR, which broadcasts from Simferopol, could be shut down by the Russian authorities controlling the Crimean Peninsula. Its temporary license expires on April 1, and there is no sign that Russia’s broadcast regulator will renew it. The Crimean Tatar channel is one of the last independent voices on the peninsula following Russia’s annexation last year.

Ibraim Umerov, a spokesman for Crimean Tatars in Kyiv, worked for several years for Crimean media outlets, including ATR. He stopped by the Ukraine Today newsroom to explain why the channel is so important for the Crimean Tatar community and for the right to independent media.

Ibraim Umerov, Spokesman for Kyiv Crimean Tatar community: “ATR is not an oppositional channel…”

Umerov said the Russian authorities who seized the peninsula have cracked down of freedom of speech. Umerov said ATR is more than a news channel. It’s an important part of Crimean Tatar culture, showing documentaries and Crimean Tatar films as well as other specialty programs.

ATR has applied for a broadcast license under Russian law, but authorities have rejected their attempts citing murky administrative rules. Umerov and ATR journalists see it another way.

The Crimean Tatars, who make up about 10 percent of the peninsula’s population, have faced harassment under Russian occupation. Properties have been seized and activists have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Crimean Tatar leader Mustafa Dzhemilev, a former Soviet dissident and longtime leader of the Crimean Tatar community, was banned from re-entering Crimea after travelling to mainland Ukraine last year. Human rights groups, including Freedom House, have called the situation alarming.

Source: Ukraine Today.

Link: http://uatoday.tv/geopolitics/crimean-tatar-channel-faces-shutdown-by-russian-authorities-418577.html.

By Natalia Zinets

March 20, 2015

KIEV (Reuters) – Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan offered a $50 million loan to Ukraine and called for the rights of Crimean Tatars to be protected during a trip to Kiev on Friday, but avoided outright criticism of trade partner Russia.

In a joint press conference with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, Erdogan said Turkey was also offering $10 million in humanitarian assistance on top of the loan, which is meant to help Ukraine cover its budget deficit.

“We have expressed our support for the territorial integrity, political union and sovereignty of Ukraine, including Crimea, in every platform,” Erdogan said, voicing support for the Minsk ceasefire brokered by Germany and France in February.

“We also wish for the continuation of Ukraine’s stance of protecting the rights of all ethnic and religious minorities, especially Crimean Tatar Turks, who have proved their loyalty to their country during this crisis,” he said.

Turks have close kinship bonds with the Muslim, Turkic-speaking Tatar minority in Crimea, the Black Sea peninsula Moscow annexed from Ukraine a year ago. Erdogan has repeatedly warned that the instability could have regional repercussions.

But Turkey has deepening trade ties with Russia and has been reluctant to openly criticize Moscow’s actions in Ukraine. Erdogan spoke by phone with Russian President Vladimir Putin this week, discussing energy deals and the Ukraine crisis.

Russian gas exporter Gazprom said in January it planned to build an undersea gas pipeline via the Turkish-Greek border — a project informally known as “Turkish Stream” — as it seeks to supply Europe while by-passing Ukraine.

Ukrainian officials had been expected to seek assurances from Erdogan and Energy Minister Taner Yildiz during their trip that those ties will not harm Ukrainian interests.

Asked at the press conference about the Turkish Stream project, Erdogan gave no new details, saying simply that Turkey found the Russian proposal “reasonable” and that Russia remained its biggest natural gas supplier.

A senior Turkish official said ahead of the visit that Ukraine’s ambition to build a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant on the Black Sea coast would be on the agenda, but that Ankara still opposes the project on environmental grounds.

“Nobody should expect from this visit a step from Turkey that could strain ties with Russia,” a second official said ahead of the meetings with Poroshenko.

(Additional reporting by Pavel Polityuk in Kiev, Orhan Coskun in Ankara, Humeyra Pamuk and Ece Toksabay in Istanbul; Writing by Nick Tattersall; Editing by Susan Fenton)

30 January 2015 Friday

Increasing pressure on Crimean Tatars is unacceptable, Turkey’s foreign minister has said.

Mevlut Cavusoglu was speaking at the 24th African Union Summit in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, where he said Crimean Tatars have been facing pressure since the Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea.

Cavusoglu’s comments come after Deputy Chairman of the Crimean Tatar Mejlis Ahtem Ciygoz was taken into custody on Thursday by the Russian Federal Investigative Committee on suspicion of organizing “mass disorder” in front of Crimea’s parliament.

Simferopol witnessed clashes on Feb. 26, 2014 when Crimean Tatars and other pro-Ukrainian activists clashed with pro-Russian demonstrators.

A referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014. A majority of the Crimean population voted to become part of the Russian Federation. The U.S. and EU denounced the referendum as illegitimate, as the region was occupied by Russian soldiers at the time.

Although Turkey is among the countries opposed to Russia’s annexation of Crimea, and one that defends the territorial integrity of Ukraine, Turkey did not implement the Western-led economic sanctions imposed on Russia.

Today, Cavusoglu said Turkey had aired problems related to Crimean Tatars to Russian president Vladimir Putin during his visit to Ankara on Dec. 1, adding that the Turkish side “did not see any positive developments in this regard.”

Russia had previously said that it is ready to grant ethnic and cultural rights to the Crimean Tatar people.

“I hope these pressures will end and that Crimean Tatars will be given the rights that have been violated so far,” said Cavusoglu.

According to Turkey’s Foreign Ministry, there are 280,000 Crimean Tatars in Crimea, about 13 percent of the total population.

24th African Union Summit

Over 35 African leaders met Friday in Addis Ababa for the 24th Ordinary Session of the African Union’s Heads of State and Government Summit.

The two-day summit’s theme is: “Year of Women’s Empowerment and Development towards Africa’s Agenda 2063.”

Cavusoglu held a bilateral meeting with his Ethiopian counterpart Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus about regional and international developments.

“Together with China and India, we are one of the three strategic partners of the African Union,” said Cavusoglu.

Turkey has been an observer state in the African Union since 2005 and has also been considered a strategic partner for the union since 2008.

Source: World Bulletin.

Link: http://www.worldbulletin.net/todays-news/154079/turkeys-foreign-minister-wants-end-to-pressure-on-tatars.

30 January 2015 Friday

Turkey has condemned Friday the arrest of a top Crimean Tatar official by the Russian Federal Investigative Committee.

Releasing a written statement on Friday, Turkey’s Foreign Ministry called the arrest of Deputy Chairman Ahtem Ciygoz a new way of suppressing the Mejlis – the governing body for Crimean Tatars.

“We express that these kind of illegitimate implementations serves no one’s interest, expect the liberation of Mr. Ciygoz and see respect to our Crimean Tatar kin’s democratic and humanitarian rights,” the statement said.

Ciygoz was taken into custody Thursday on suspicion of organizing “mass disorder” in front of Crimea’s parliament in Simferopol on Feb. 26, 2014, when Crimean Tatars and other pro-Ukrainian activists clashed with pro-Russian activists.

A statement by the Russian Investigative Committee said unidentified people had called on Crimean Tatars to create trouble, which ended in brute force against the members of Russian Unity headed by the current Crimean Prime Minister Sergei Aksyonov.

Mevlut Cavusoglu also raised the issue on Friday during a speech at the 24th African Union Summit in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.

“Increasing pressure on Crimean Tatars is unacceptable,” the foreign minister said.

Since Russia annexed Crimea in March 2014, Crimean Tatars have said to be facing discrimination and pressure for their opposition to the annexation.

Source: World Bulletin.

Link: http://www.worldbulletin.net/todays-news/154094/turkey-condemns-arrest-of-crimean-tatar-deputy-chairman.

06 February 2015 Friday

February 6, Crimean Supreme Court decided to leave Deputy Chairman of Crimean Tatar Mejlis Akhtem Chiygoz in pre-trial detention center till 19 February, krymr.com reports.

The Supreme Court refused to grant an appeal on arrest of Akhtem Chiygoz on 29 January.

Chiygoz was detained on 29 January in the framework of criminal investigation of Crimean Tatars’ rally that took place on 26 February 2014, when Crimean Tatars expressed their support of Ukraine’s integrity.

Source: World Bulletin.

Link: http://www.worldbulletin.net/world/154499/crimean-tatar-leader-to-remain-in-detention.

December 09, 2014

SARY-SU, Crimea (AP) — Since Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine, armed men have shown up frequently and at odd hours to search the cinder-block houses, mosque and school in this settlement of Crimean Tatars, a Muslim ethnic minority that has long suffered from discrimination in the peninsula that is its historic homeland.

The worst shock came in September, when two men in the town of 3,000 were abducted. Now the community of Sary-Su “is trembling with fear,” said Rebiya Setarova, an 80-year-old Tatar as she tottered anxiously across a dirt road to check on her son and grandchildren ahead of Friday prayers. “Now I worry for the fate of my son. Everybody worries about the children.”

Police have made no arrests, and the kidnappers’ identities remain a mystery. But Setarova has no doubts about who is responsible: “This is what we get when Russia comes to Crimea.” The fears and uncertainties of people in Sary-Su sum up how life has been upended for the 300,000-strong Crimean Tatar community. Deported en masse to Central Asia by the Soviets 70 years ago, they began returning to Crimea in the 1980s to rebuild their lives in an independent Ukraine.

Russia’s annexation in March, which many Tatars vocally opposed, overturned their world. Since then, the Tatars’ self-ruling body, the Mejlis, has been disbanded by Russian authorities, its highest-ranking leaders barred from re-entering Crimea and dozens of impromptu searches for narcotics, weapons and banned literature conducted in Tatar neighborhoods across the region.

Human-rights experts say that Russia is punishing them for speaking out against annexation. “For their openly critical position, the authorities have been cracking down on dissent,” said Yulia Gorbunova, a researcher for Human Rights Watch.

It was a warm September evening in Sary-Su when Abdureshit Dzhepparov’s 18-year-old son, Islyam, served him Turkish coffee and left the house. A half hour later, neighbors were on the phone: They had seen Islyam, along with his 23-year-old cousin, frisked and forced into a dark blue Volkswagen van by men dressed in black.

The van sped away. Neither of the kidnapped men has been seen since. “When these things happen, you can’t even make plans — every night, if your children are out … as a parent you can’t sleep until they get home,” said Dzhepparov, who also has a daughter in high school.

Elsewhere in Crimea, at least seven other Tatars have vanished since March, including three who had been active in demonstrations calling for the region to remain part of Ukraine. Two of the abducted were later found dead. The others are missing.

Police have opened investigations into the disappearances. And Sergei Aksyonov, Crimea’s leader, has attempted to reassure the Tatars that their community is being treated fairly. “We have respect for people of any faith or confession, and I can guarantee that there will be no infringements based on nationality on Crimean territory,” Aksyonov told The Associated Press in an interview.

That statement and a visit by Aksyonov to the Sary-Su area have done little to reassure Dzhepparov. He said he does not understand why action was not taken faster, especially since witnesses jotted down the license plate number of the van used by his son’s captors.

“With the capabilities they have, they could have blocked off all of Crimea, all the roads, and stopped and checked every Volkswagen van,” Dzhepparov said. “So now I’ve started to think: Who in actual fact did this?”

Such questions have reverberated in Sary-Su, where residents are worried that the new lives they built from scratch in Crimea could quickly unravel. This settlement by a creek — the name means “Yellow Water” in the Tatar language — sprang up in the 1990s, when families returning from exile occupied empty fields and built their homes.

Most people here do not legally own their houses or the plots they were built on and cannot afford to return to ancestral Crimean Tatar cities or villages now populated by ethnic Russians or others. That feeling of vulnerability has only been reinforced in recent months, as Sary-Su became one of the targets of “dozens of very intrusive and in some cases unwarranted searches” of Tatar homes throughout Crimea, according to Gorbunova.

The pro-Moscow authorities say the searches were intended to look for drugs, guns and literature banned by Russian law. Human Rights Watch noted that many searches, sometimes conducted in the middle of the night, involved dozens of masked men with guns.

On the same street where Dzhapparov lives, Setarova’s son had his house searched in September by men claiming to be from the prosecutor’s office. Unlike his mother, Akhseid Dzhedzhekov is determined to remain calm and face the new facts of life in Crimea with quiet resolve. He said the men took nothing, and he has not heard from them since.

“You can’t stare down a tank,” said the 40-year-old builder. “So today, our strategy is patience. We know that God is with us.” Sary-Su’s mosque was searched in August when children were attending religion classes. That same month, at nearby School No. 4, armed men burst into the empty classroom of Asiye Abduvelieva, who teaches Tatar language and culture. They seized dozens of books. The instructor was later found guilty of violating Russia’s strict law against the spread of religious extremism, and fined 1,000 rubles ($22).

“I have been working for 33 years and suddenly at the end of the career I have a court conviction against me,” the 54-year old educator with a bouffant hairdo said with indignation, clacking around the classroom in her black leather stiletto heels. “When (we were) in Ukraine, I always won all the teaching awards.”

Abduvelieva’s conviction was annulled on appeal, and the fine dropped. But the sting remains — not just for her but for many in Sary-Su outraged that a well-loved and long-honored local teacher could be treated like a criminal.

In October, when Aksyonov met with Dzhepparov in the nearby city of Belogorsk, hundreds of angry Sary-Su residents massed to vent their outrage over the kidnappings and official actions toward the Crimean Tatars. Footage of the protests was captured by ATR, a Tatar television station and other news outlets.

“There were snipers on the roofs, the entire city was surrounded by troops,” said Dzhepparov, who said he was nervous the enraged crowd might get out of hand. “If something had suddenly gone wrong, it would have been a catastrophe.”

Such fears seem well-founded: Tatar protests occurred frequently and peacefully under Ukrainian rule, but since Russian annexation, they have sometimes ended in confrontations with ethnic Russians or police.

In May, hundreds of Crimean Tatars defied authorities and broke through a border checkpoint to greet their leader, Mustafa Dzhemilev, who had been banned from entering Crimea. Forty-nine people were charged with minor administrative violations, such as engaging in an unsanctioned protest or crossing the border illegally. More serious charges of injuring a government official — which can carry a prison term of 10 years — were later brought against three people.

Defense lawyers said the case could end up ensnaring dozens more and voiced concern about the wider implications of official policy and actions for the Crimean Tatars. “Ukrainian authorities were diplomatic and allowed the steam to be let out of the valve,” said attorney Dzhemil Kemishev. “People came out and protested, talked about the things that were worrying them, and things ended there.

“But when you’re being told not to do that, it’s like when you don’t lift the lid off a pot of boiling water: Sooner or later it will explode.”

Dahlburg reported from Kiev, Ukraine.